Emigration to Australia - Within the last two weeks the number of persons applying for a passage to Australia is altogether unprecedented. The agent for Fifeshire had last week upwards of 400 applications - the parties applying being chiefly coal-miners and farm-servants. In Edinburgh, the number of applicants is still greater - some days the number exceeding one hundred. From our advertising columns it will be seen that Messrs Bell and Orr, of Glasgow, have made arrangements to run a number of vessels regularly between the Clyde and Australia. [Fife Herald 10 June 1852]
Scotch Miners for America - On Saturday last, a large body of miners left Glasgow on route for the United States. It included men from Dalry, Galston Govan, Kilmarnock. Glasgow, Maryhill, Fife, Wishaw, Holytown, and other places. Several of the emigrants were supplied with funds for the voyage by Mr A. M Donald, Secretary to the Miners' Association, who accompanied them to Greenock, and gave the men a very suitable address before they left the Clyde steamer. While cautioning against indulging in extravagant hopes, he pointed out that, by sobriety, industry, and good conduct, they would have every prospect of success, and might in time become landholders - a position to which they could scarcely expect to look forward in this country. It is stated that another party of about 150 in number is being organised to leave on 10th May. [Fife Herald 27 April 1865]
THE EMIGRATION OF MINERS TO AMERICA - The following letter, addressed to the editor of the Glasgow Herald, appeared in that journal on Wednesday : - " Sir, - My attention has been drawn to the above subject by a letter received in Rutherglen the other evening, setting forth the actual position of matters in the mining districts in the northern states of America. I trust this communication may have the effect of making my fellow-workmen, the miners, pause before they leave the land of their birth, whatever advice may be tendered them by interested parties. The letter to which I refer is dated 'Lonaconing, 23d May,' and is addressed to Mr A. Richardson. I should explain that Mr Richardson, in a letter which he sent over the Atlantic, was inquiring whether he should emigrate, and in answer he is informed, at the date above mentioned, that all the mines are standing, as the men are out on strike, in consequence of the masters reducing the wages from a dollar per ton to 60 cents. Some of the men had been offered 75 cents, but the mines remained standing since 7th May, and there seemed no prospect of their being commenced. The writers of the letter, which is subscribed by Andrew Tennant and James Dunn, were informed that an Emigration Society had been started in Scotland, and that M'Donald was sending men out to America; but they felt assured that men coming out could only act as 'blacklegs,' or be reduced to want. They were also convinced that men from Scotland would not like to act as "blacklegs," or non-society men, because there were not wanting cases in which men were shot or their houses set fire to for taking up such a position. The writers should advise all who proposed coming out to delay doing so till the strike was settled. If, they added, M’Donald had any good wish for the mining population of Scotland, he should not send men to America at present, for a thousand of the Scotch miners there would like to be again within sound of the Laigh Kirk Bells of Glasgow. I leave this letter to speak for itself.- Yours, &c, " J. Muir." [Dunfermline Saturday Press 17 June 1865]
Dunfermline -Emigration of Miners To America - On account of the great depression which still exists in the mining and iron trade, a considerable number of miners in the Dunfermline district left last week for America acting on the suggestion of Mr M'Donald, president of the Miners' Association. The mining trade is giving no evidence of improvement, and many men are still unemployed. The markets are dull, and coal continues to accumulate at the pitheads. One colliery in the district has a stock on hand of about 36,000 tons. [Scotsman 2 March 1868]
Departure of Miners for America - About a dozen miners, including their wives and children, left the Broomielaw in the Vivid on Saturday morning to join the Anchor Line S.S. Elysia at Greenock, en route to America. They came from Carronside, from whence about 50 others accompanied and bade them adieu. This is the first of collier emigrants taking this line of policy in respect of the present dispute. They all seemed in hearty spirits, but much grief was visible among those they parted from. - Glasgow Citizen. [Fife Herald 2 April 1874]
MINERS AND MINING IN AMERICA - Nova Scotia papers contain paragraphs respecting the immigration of miners from France and from Scotland. The latter had found employment, but at no improvement on the home wages. In Cape Breton a discovery of coal in what may be described as a hill-side, above the water level, yet close to the sea, and means of shipment, estimated at 60 million tons in three seams, is reported. On the other hand, many miners and ironworkers are idle, and suffer much distress in the States. The recent calamity at Pittsburg has probably increased the number. At Marquette, on the States shores of Lake Superior, the greater part of the iron ore taken from the Lake Superior mines was formerly shipped, and the place had a busy appearance; but at the commencement of last month business was nearly suspended, and has been in that condition for some time. All the mines in the neighbourhood were on short time or closed. The Jackson Mine, said to be the largest in the district, and which lately employed 1200 men, had only 400 at work for greatly reduced pay. A numerous party - several hundreds of the men and their families - had emigrated to Manitoba, and more were preparing to follow. It is obvious that no hope exists of employment for any large immigration of miners to America at present, or for a considerable time. [Edinburgh Evening News 10 August 1874]
Letters To The Editor - The Scotch Miners
Wellhall, Hamilton, April 16, 1878
Sir - In your issue of today I observe an article on the Scotch miners, at least that is its heading. In the article you discuss various phases in connection with the condition of the miner. In it it is stated, "in the beginning of last year Mr Macdonald advised 20,000 of the younger men to leave an occupation which could only afford starvation wages and emigrate to the great coal-fields of America." I take the clearest and most unmistakable way that I can in declaring the assertion that I advised either young or old to go to the coal-fields of America, when I spokeof emigration, is utterly untrue. I observe in the article other statements of a similar character. As they, however, do not concern me, I rest myself satisfied with this unqualified contradiction. —I am, &c. Alexander Macdonald.
(Mr Macdonald specified in his speech on March 29th of last year certain coal-fields in America to which the young miners who were to emigrate were not to go. So far his contradiction is justifiable. But he told them where to go and it is certain that if they had taken his advice they would have been worse off than they are at home, just as they are much worse off at home for having taken his advice on various occasions, including last year. Mr Macdonald speaks of "other statements" in the article which are inaccurate, but he does not point them out. He is very kind but such unusual kindness is perfectly intelligible in the circumstances.) [Scotsman 18 April 1878]
INFORMATION TO EMIGRANTS. The October circulars of the Emigrants' Information Office and the annual editions of the penny handbooks show the present prospects of emigration, the notice boards are now exhibited, and the circulars may be obtained free of charge, at more than 900 public libraries, Urban District Councils, and institutions throughout the country. In Canada, work was plentiful during the summer both in the agricultural and manufacturing industries, but it is too late for emigrants to go there this year, unless they go to friends or have means of their own.
In New South Wales the building trade at Sydney continues busy, and there has been a demand for skilled plumbers, but all other trades are depressed. The ordinary emigrant without means of his own should not go to New South Wales at the present time. The labouring classes generally are complaining of the increased cost of living owing to the drought and the new federal tariff. Domestic servants continue to be in steady demand throughout the State, as in all other parts of Australia. There are more than enough ladies' helps, ladies' companions, and governesses. The demand for female labour as machinists and workers in such industries as the clothing and boot trades continues, and there is a fair opening for girls and women in this direction.
In Victoria there is no general demand for more labour, and many men are out of work. No large public works are being proposed by Government which might provide employment. In some country districts, however, competent farm labourers and milking hands are very scarce, most men preferring the higher wages and shorter hours of the towns. The rise in the cost of rent, and of meat, bread, and other reticles affects every one. The Woollen Trade Board has fixed the lowest wages to be paid to wool-scourers and spinners at 30s a week, and to female warpers at 15s; and the Printers' Board has fixed the lowest wages to be paid to compositors and stereotypers at 1s ½ d to 1s 1d an hour. There are excellent openings, as a rule, in this and other Australian colonies for farmers, dairy farmers, and fruit growers, if they have a little capital, and some experience of the country.
In South Australia the chief industries are connected with mining, farming, and manufacturing, but there is no demand for more labour at the present time. The last report from the Government Labour Bureau in Queensland shows that in the north there was no demand for any one except female servants and some general labourers; that in the central districts there was practically no demand for any one; and that in the south there was a good demand for agricultural labourers and general labourers only. More mechanics, station hands, miners, or married couples on farms and stations were not wanted in any part of Queensland. The drought is causing great losses. The last report of the Government Labour Bureau in Western Australia shows as follows: - There is an ample supply of men in the building and other trades at Fremantle, Coolgardie, Albany, and other towns, and on the goldfields many are out of work, but there is a demand for in one or two small places, asMenzies and Northam; the supply of miners is quite sufficient except at Donnybrook (gold) and Greenbushes (tin); there is a good demand for agricultural labourers in many districts ; the supply of general labourers is sufficient, except at Northam, Beverley, and one or two other places; there is a good demand for female servants. In Tasmania there is a moderate demand for skilled farm hands, and female servants, and on the West Coast for miners.
In New Zealand there is a good opening for farmers with capital, farm labourers, miners, female servants, and a limited number of mechanics, but not for general labourers; passages at reduced rates are given to persons possessing fixed incomes, or a little capital.
In Cape Colony there is a good demand for female servants, but they should not go by themselves; there is no demand for more mechanics or miners, nor for general or farm labourers, who are. mainly coloured men; persons going to Cape Colony do not now require permits. No one is now allowed to land in Natal without a permit. This must be applied for personally at the Permit Office, 47 Victoria Street, London, S.W. The applicant must possess £100 or prove that he is in a position to maintain himself in South Africa. There is now no special demand for more artisans, a large number of carpenters and others in the building trades haying lately arrived, but skilled men can find work. The following persons are wanted for the Government railways; engagements are for three years; candidates must apply to the Agent-General for Natal, 2b Victoria Streot, London, S.W., enclosing particulars as to age, height, whether married or single, with medical certificates, and testimonials; free passages are provided, and half-pay during the voyage: - Good platelayers, between 25 and 40 years of age, with five years' experience, wages £11 to £15 a month; carriage and waggon examiners, having five years' experience, 9s a day. There is a good demand for female servants, but they should not go alone.
Permits are also required by those going to the Transvaal and the Orange River Colony. Those will not be valid unless endorsed by the representatives of those colonies at port of disembarkation. There is a fair demand on the Rand for really first-class mechanics in the building trades at an average wage of a little more than £1 a day; but the market is limited, and emigrants must remember that the cost of living is at least double that in England, rent being especially high. There is no demand for ordinary labourers, of whom there is a large local supply, the discharge of the irregular forces after the war having thrown large numbers of labourers on the market. An experiment is being tried by some of the mines in employing white men for general labour at 5s a day and food, which makes up about 8s 10d a day; but it is too early to pronounce as to its success. There is a demand for female servants at £5 a month, but they should not go alone; female emigrants have very great difficulty in finding suitable lodgings. [Falkirk Herald 8 October 1902]
Emigration of Miners - A number of miners and their families have left the Baillieston district for America. They sailed on the Anchor Line steamer on Saturday, in the hopes of bettering their condition across the Atlantic. [Scotsman 23 March 1923]
Scots Miners For Canada - The White Star liner Regina sails this evening from the Clyde for Canada with a good complement of emigrants, drawn from all parts of Scotland. There is an increasing number of miners emigrating to the Canadian mines in Nova Scotia, and, judging from the number of families now proceeding to join miners already in Canada, it would appear that conditions have been found favourable. The usual number of domestics and ironworkers, &c., also figure in the passenger list. Miners also figure in the passenger list of the Canadian Pacific liner Montclair which sails from the Tail of the Bank today for Canada. The party number six, of whom two hail from Portobello and one from Dunfermline. Also on board will be a party of domestic servants for Canada. Altogether 150 passengers embark at the Tail of the Bank. [Scotsman 6 October 1926]
Scots Miners For Canada - The trek of miners and other workers from Scotland to Canada continues. A large party of miners and families, from-various parts of Scotland, and particularly the Hamilton, Burnbank, and Blantyre districts , sailed on the White Star liner Doric from the Clyde on Saturday evening. for Canada. There were also considerable numbers of domestics, iron workers and farm workers included in the passenger list. The St Lawrence season from Glasgow closes with: the sailing of the White Star lined Regina on Saturday; 13th November for Quebec and Montreal. Thereafter a monthly service will be maintained by this line from Glasgow to Halifax and New York. [Scotsman 1 November 1926]
Young Miners For Canada - At Hamilton Employment Exchange yesterday hundreds of young miners enrolled as trainees with a view to emigration to Canada for farm work. There has been an attempt on the part of Communists to break up the propaganda meetings which the Ministry of Labour are holding in many industrial centres in Lanarkshire, but Mr. J. M. Cramond, Controller for Scotland for the Department, addressing a meeting of miners, said he was pleased with the response already made to the scheme of free training and passages by Scotland's young and virile manhood. He was satisfied that they were going to get all the muscular manhood they wanted. The scheme was daily growing in favour among the miners of Scotland. Intimation was made of the intention of the Ministry of Labour to open early in the year a big training centre at Carstairs, Lanarkshire. [The Times 29 November 1928]